Interaction between values and facts in social science

Stick to the Social Science Facts

Scientists are often told to ‘stick to the facts’ when communicating their research findings. This seems like sound advice, particularly for controversial topics.

However, sticking to the facts ignores how values and beliefs interact with facts. This is a crucial issue when it comes to social science. This article will explore how the study of society is entangled with morality and values.

Durkheim’s Study of Suicide

In 1897, father of sociology Emile Durkheim published “Suicide: A Study in Sociology” which is considered as one of the classic works in this field. The book was the first methodological study of a social fact in the context of society and triggered a new field of sociological inquiry.

Durkheim was interested in the question of why a certain number of people commit suicide in every society at a given time. He believed that the answer could be found by studying the causes of suicide. He proposed that each society was predisposed to contribute a particular quota of suicides, and the intensity of this tendency could be measured.

Durkheim also studied the role of religion, family, and education in suicides. He found that suicides increase in those countries, months of the year, and times of day when religious and other social life is most active, and decreases in such places where such activity declines. He classified four types of suicides: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic.

Savitribai Phule’s Birth

Born on January 3, 1831 in Naigaon, Maharashtra, Savitribai Phule was a revolutionary flame that ignited the movement for education and equality of women in India. She fought social injustices like child marriage and sati and is now hailed as the country’s first feminist.

Together with her husband Jyotirao Phule, she opened one of India’s first schools for girls in Bhide Wada, Pune in 1848. She also worked towards the emancipation of widows and fought against sati pratha and the caste system.

The duo did not have any children of their own but did adopt a son named Yashawantrao from a Brahmin widow. They also opened a well in their house for those who were considered untouchable and pushed for the freedom of women from oppressive customs.

Shyam Saran Negi’s Voting

The 106-year-old Master Shyam Saran Negi, the country’s first voter and Election Commission’s brand ambassador, has kept his date with democracy. He voted in the Himachal Pradesh Assembly polls through postal ballot on November 12. His residence in scenic Kalpa village of Kinnaur district was decorated with a red carpet, and he was greeted by a band playing traditional musical instruments. The Election Commission’s Chief Electoral Officer Naveen Chawla also visited him.

The BJP expresses “deep sadness and condolences” on the death of Negi. It wished that God grants “strength to the family members to bear this irreparable loss.” He was a pillar of strength and inspiration for younger generations, as he always exhorted them to vote. He cast his 34th postal ballot this year for the Himachal Pradesh Assembly elections. He had earlier voted in the Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections as well. The state government is making arrangements for his funeral with full state honours.

Scotland’s Menstrual Products

The Scottish government has made history in the world of menstrual products by implementing the Period Products Act. The new law puts a legal duty on local councils and education providers to make free tampons and pads available in public settings across the country.

The law was introduced by Labour politician Monica Lennon and has been praised as a victory in the global movement against period poverty. According to surveys, around a quarter of people who menstruate miss school and work due to their inability to access the necessary hygiene products.

The law requires local officials and education providers to stock up on tampons and pads in order to ensure that anyone who menstruates can access them without having to pay. The government has also made period education resources available and promoted the use of a mobile app, launched earlier this year by Hey Girls social enterprise, to find a collection point nearby. The app has already been downloaded more than 3.4 million times.

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Principles for Social Science Research

Social Science Principles

Social science principles are a set of guidelines for gathering and interpreting research data. These guidelines allow reports to be intelligible and reasonable for discussion and debate by researchers, critics, and other people.

They also ensure that similar datasets can be compared and that findings are valid. This is an essential part of any scientific endeavour.

Principle 1: Cause and Effect

A cause and effect relationship occurs when one thing makes another happen. For example, if you spend a week lounging around munching on junk food all day, the effect will be that you’ll probably gain a couple pounds.

Social science research can be complex, with a number of potential causes and effects. It is therefore important to establish causal relationships using a variety of methods, including questionaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data analysis.

Moreover, social scientists should be encouraged to share their research as widely as possible, to foster the widest academic scrutiny and to encourage diverse scholarly voices. This is a fundamental aspect of the open science movement, which needs to be extended to all social sciences disciplines. In particular, the pooling and sifting of datasets across teams of researchers should be promoted, as should greater triangulation of research methods.

Principle 2: Causal Inference

Social scientists make causal claims all the time – such as that education improves income, that intelligence is influenced by genes, that race and income inequality are caused by racism, that traumatic events worsen mental health. However, determining causal effects with observational data is challenging. Various methods have been developed to address this challenge.

However, these techniques are not without risk. In particular, they can be susceptible to unobserved pretreatment factors that affect the outcome additively. They can also be subject to a lack of consistency between counterfactuals and the underlying model.

Moreover, they can lead to false positives when estimating the effect of a treatment. These risks must be taken into account when designing a study. However, despite these limitations, it is possible to generate valid causal inferences using a variety of designs.

Principle 3: Replication

Replication is the process of trying to duplicate a previous experiment to determine whether or not the original results are valid. Recently, there has been a lot of attention given to replication in psychology due to the fact that a large number of research findings fail to replicate.

There are many reasons for this problem, such as low statistical power and “researcher degrees of freedom” (where researchers purposefully try to get results with p 0.05). Also, small sample sizes can lead to false positives. For example, if you interview five people about their belief in alien abduction, it is quite likely that three of the participants will agree with each other.

All social scientists should be familiar with this issue and learn to take a skeptical view of any flashy findings until they have been replicated. This will help to strengthen the discipline.

Principle 4: Data Analysis

In social science, interpreting research results can be challenging. How a researcher decides to investigate a question and what assumptions are made can influence the results and conclusions of the study.

This is a problem because it can lead to bias in the data analysis. It is important that researchers check their assumptions carefully.

Open science principles can help to promote this type of scrutiny. The principles encourage new research to take into account existing literature and methods. This can improve the quality of scholarly work and enable greater diversity in disciplinary perspectives.

Principle 5: Critical Thinking

In social science, critical thinking involves reasoning through a problem in order to make a judgement. It is also about evaluating the evidence and assumptions involved in making the judgment. Critical thinking skills are important in work situations because they allow you to analyze a situation objectively and come up with realistic conclusions. Many educational jurisdictions include critical thinking in their curriculum guidelines.

Generally, teachers consider the five design principles to be practical for teaching value-loaded critical thinking in a transfer-oriented and dialogic way. However, they were less positive about the third design principle regarding moral values or making the dialogue value-loaded. This was mainly because it required a change in their approach to teaching and was a new concept for them. Nevertheless, the teachers did appreciate that it was a necessary change in education.

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Unleashing the Thrills of 스포츠중계

Explore the Thrilling Realm of 스포츠중계

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Frequently Asked Questions


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